NATO's secretary general has said the organisation is fully committed to taking action against the perpetrators of cyber crime, no matter where in the world they occur.
Jens Stoltenberg was addressing a conference at the National Cyber Security Centre in London about how the alliance is countering digital threats and he warned they are becoming more frequent, more complex and more destructive than ever before.
He insisted that cyber attacks are a type of warfare and that NATO is adapting to this by strengthening its capabilities and increasing its resources.
"For deterrence to have full effect, potential attackers must know that we are not limited to respond in cyberspace when we are attacked in cyber space. We can and we will use the full range of capabilities at our disposal," Mr Stoltenberg said.
He added that NATO has now designated cyberspace as a military domain, so an attack against an ally could trigger Article 5 of its founding treaty.
A NATO Summit of Allied Heads of State and Government will be held in London in early December, where the topic of bolstering cyber defences and resilience is to take top priority on the schedule.